Dog Body Language: A Guide To Understanding Your Best Friend

Four Minutes
Aug 19, 2022

Sometimes when we look into a dog’s eyes, we can tell they’re trying to tell us something, but we just don’t understand — if only they could open their mouths and talk! The good news is that you aren’t crazy; your dog communicates with you through their body language every day.

Learning how to read a dog’s body language is critical to training them and enriching your relationship. Here are a few common body language cues that will help you understand your best friend a little better.

Why Do Dogs Wag Their Tails?

It’s a common misconception that dogs wag their tails because they’re happy. While this isn’t untrue, their cute tails can tell us a lot more than just happiness! For example, one recent study found that dogs wag their tails to the right or left when they see something positive or negative, respectively.³

Watch what direction your pal’s tail wags next time you see them; it may be to the right! The speed of the wagging seems to matter, too. Is their tail spinning like a helicopter?⁴ Then they’re definitely happy to see you — or their food bowl.

The position of the tail also matters; think of the phrase, “tail between your legs,” which means that someone is backing down or scared. The same is true for dogs!

Other tail positions communicate a lot, such as:⁵

  • Preparation and agitation: A dog’s ears are up and their tails raised to hear what’s coming and confront it.
  • Negotiation: A pup stops wagging or freezes up, meaning they don’t like the attention they’re getting but don’t feel like fighting.
  • Aggression: Look for a tail that’s neutral to vertical or arched over back; the higher the tail, the greater the perceived threat.
  • Curiosity: Look for a straight tail in a horizontal position.

Keep in mind that a dog’s breed matters here. Some dogs have very short tails (like pugs) or curled tails (like chow chows) — which limits the movement of their tails — while beagles tend to hold their tails higher. In cases like these, watch your dog for additional cues to how they feel.⁵

What Are Raised Hackles?

Raised hackles in dogs are when the hairs on their backs stand up, similar to goosebumps in humans. This response — called piloerection — is an involuntary mammalian response that doesn’t always mean your dog is scared. It simply means your pup is aroused by something and is on high alert: from a smell, a feeling on their paw, or even the temperature changing.⁶

A dog’s hair standing on end is a normal reaction to stress or arousal, so pay attention! They may have noticed something you haven’t.

Why Is My Dog Trembling?

Another good cue that your pup is reacting to something is trembling. Dog shivers usually indicate an adrenal rush from fear, excitement, or anxiety. Chat with your vet if your dog is shaking all the time, for no real reason (like cold weather). It could be an early sign of a seizure, ear infection, pain, or other neurological issues.⁷

Common Dog Postures

There are dozens of postures a dog takes to indicate they want to eat, play, or tell us someone’s at the door. Some of the most common postures will improve how you and your pup interact every day, like:⁴

  • The Play Bow: Front haunches down with butt in the air, with their tail wagging as if to say “Let’s play!”
  • Alert: Leaned forward, tail down, ears are forward with the mouth open or closed.
  • Frightened: Ears flattened, tail tucked in, while crouching towards the ground.
  • Submissive: On their back with their paws and tails tucked in to say “I am not a threat!”

Learning your dog’s body postures will help you train them better, instead of them training you.


If eyes are the portal to the soul, then a dog’s eyes are a door to their heart. Our dogs watch us all day long to learn our routines and how we’re feeling. Sometimes, dogs make eye contact to express emotion.

For example, soft eyes (with droopy or squinty eyes) are a good indicator of a calm and happy dog; hard eyes are cold and are usually a sign the dog is feeling aggressive or territorial.⁸  There are many reasons pups stare at us, like begging or learning our behavior, so learn your pal well! They’re certainly watching you.

Facial expressions

Dogs are some of the few domesticated animals that have distinct facial expressions, thanks to their cute eyebrow ridges.9  Our dogs are trying to tell us something when they raise or scrunch their eyebrows, such as “I’m listening” or “What are you doing?”

One confusing facial expression is smiling. Unlike the soft eyes, your dog’s smile isn’t always a happy expression. Rather, it can be a warning sign if they feel threatened and a way to show their teeth telling someone to back off.⁴ On the other hand, if your dog’s body is relaxed and wiggly with their smile, they’re telling us or another dog “I come in peace.”⁴

Keep Your Dog Healthy With Pet Insurance

Talking and communicating with a dog is half the joy of having them in the family. Taking care of them is the other half, despite how expensive it seems to get. Consider adding MetLife Pet Insurance to support your pet parenting to start saving thousands on veterinary care. Our dog insurance policies cover illnesses treated by your favorite veterinarian.¹’²

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¹ Pet Insurance offered by MetLife Pet Insurance Solutions LLC is underwritten by Independence American Insurance Company (“IAIC”), a Delaware insurance company, headquartered at 485 Madison Avenue, NY, NY 10022, and Metropolitan General Insurance Company (“MetGen”), a Rhode Island insurance company, headquartered at 700 Quaker Lane, Warwick, RI 02886, in those states where MetGen’s policies are available. MetLife Pet Insurance Solutions LLC is the policy administrator authorized by IAIC and MetGen to offer and administer pet insurance policies. MetLife Pet Insurance Solutions LLC was previously known as PetFirst Healthcare, LLC and in some states continues to operate under that name pending approval of its application for a name change. The entity may operate under an alternate, assumed, and/or fictitious name in certain jurisdictions as approved, including MetLife Pet Insurance Services LLC (New York and Minnesota), MetLife Pet Insurance Solutions Agency LLC (Illinois), and such other alternate, assumed, or fictitious names approved by certain jurisdictions.

² Provided all terms of the policy are met. Application is subject to underwriting review and approval. Like most insurance policies, insurance policies issued by IAIC and MetGen contain certain deductibles, co-insurance, exclusions, exceptions, reductions, limitations, and terms for keeping them in force. For costs, complete details of coverage and exclusions, and a listing of approved states, please contact MetLife Pet Insurance Solutions LLC.

³ “Asymmetric tail-wagging responses by dogs to different emotive stimuli,” Current Biology

⁴ “How To Read Dog Body Language,” American Kennel Club

“Interpreting Tail Wags in Dogs,” VCA Hospitals

“All About Dog Hackles,” Great Pet Care

⁷ “6 Dog Seizure Symptoms to Watch For,” Reader’s Digest

⁸ “Why Does My Dog Stare At Me?,” American Kennel Club

⁹ “National Dog Day 2021: Science Explains Why Your Dog is So Cute,” Wall Street Journal


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